Wichtige Unix und MS-DOS Befehle

Unix Commands! Rechte für Unix User Remote Connection Commands Internet Protocoll Numbers! [Guter Link] [Telefonbuch]

A little summary of Unix Commands
Command/SyntaxWhat it will do
awk/nawk [options] filescan for patterns in a file and process the results
cat [options] fileconcatenate (list) a file
cd [directory]change directory
chgrp [options] group filechange the group of the file
chmod [options] filechange file or directory access permissions
chown [options] owner filechange the ownership of a file; can only be done by the superuser
chsh (passwd -e/-s) username login_shellchange the user's login shell (often only by the superuser)
cmp [options] file1 file2compare two files and list where differences occur (text or binary files)
compress [options] filecompress file and save it as file.Z
cp [options] file1 file2copy file1 into file2; file2 shouldn't already exist. This command creates or overwrites file2.
cut (options) [file(s)]cut specified field(s)/character(s) from lines in file(s)
date [options]report the current date and time
dd [if=infile] [of=outfile] [operand=value]copy a file, converting between ASCII and EBCDIC or swapping byte order, as specified
diff [options] file1 file2compare the two files and display the differences (text files only)
df [options] [resource]report the summary of disk blocks and inodes free and in use
du [options] [directory or file]report amount of disk space in use
echo [text string]echo the text string to stdout
ed or ex [options] fileUnix line editors
emacs [options] filefull-screen editor
expr argumentsevaluate the arguments. Used to do arithmetic, etc. in the shell.
file [options] fileclassify the file type
find directory [options] [actions]find files matching a type or pattern
finger [options] user[@hostname]report information about users on local and remote machines
ftp [options] hosttransfer file(s) using file transfer protocol
grep [options] 'search string' argument

egrep [options] 'search string' argument

fgrep [options] 'search string' argument

search the argument (in this case probably a file) for all occurrences of the search string, and list them.
gzip [options] file

gunzip [options] file

zcat [options] file

compress or uncompress a file. Compressed files are stored with a .gz ending
head [-number] filedisplay the first 10 (or number of) lines of a file
hostnamedisplay or set (super-user only) the name of the current machine
kill [options] [-SIGNAL] [pid#] [%job]send a signal to the process with the process id number (pid#) or job control number (%n). The default signal is to kill the process.
ln [options] source_file targetlink the source_file to the target
lpq [options]

lpstat [options]

show the status of print jobs
lpr [options] file

lp [options] file

print to defined printer
lprm [options]

cancel [options]

remove a print job from the print queue
ls [options] [directory or file]list directory contents or file permissions
mail [options] [user]

mailx [options] [user]

Mail [options] [user]

simple email utility available on Unix systems. Type a period as the first character on a new line to send message out, question mark for help.
man [options] commandshow the manual (man) page for a command
mkdir [options] directorymake a directory
more [options] file

less [options] file

pg [options] file

page through a text file
mv [options] file1 file2move file1 into file2
od [options] fileoctal dump a binary file, in octal, ASCII, hex, decimal, or character mode.
passwd [options]set or change your password
paste [options] filepaste field(s) onto the lines in file
pr [options] filefilter the file and print it on the terminal
ps [options]show status of active processes
pwdprint working (current) directory
rcp [options] hostnameremotely copy files from this machine to another machine
rlogin [options] hostnamelogin remotely to another machine
rm [options] fileremove (delete) a file or directory (-r recursively deletes the directory and its contents) (-i prompts before removing file
rmdir [options] directoryremove a directory
rsh [options] hostnameremote shell to run on another machine
script filesaves everything that appears on the screen to file until exit is executed
sed [options] filestream editor for editing files from a script or from the command line
sort [options] filesort the lines of the file according to the options chosen
source file

. file

read commands from the file and execute them in the current shell. source: C shell, .: Bourne shell.
strings [options] filereport any sequence of 4 or more printable characters ending in <NL> or <NULL>. Usually used to search binary files for ASCII strings.
stty [options] set or display terminal control options
tail [options] filedisplay the last few lines (or parts) of a file
tar key[options] [file(s)]tape archiver--refer to man pages for details on creating, listing, and retrieving from archive files. Tar files can be stored on tape or disk.
tee [options] filecopy stdout to one or more files
telnet [host [port]]communicate with another host using telnet protocol
touch [options] [date] filecreate an empty file, or update the access time of an existing file
tr [options] string1 string2translate the characters in string1 from stdin into those in string2 in stdout
uncompress file.Zuncompress file.Z and save it as a file
uniq [options] fileremove repeated lines in a file
uudecode [file]decode a uuencoded file, recreating the original file
uuencode [file] new_nameencode binary file to 7-bit ASCII, useful when sending via email, to be decoded as new_name at destination
vi [options] filevisual, full-screen editor
wc [options] [file(s)]display word (or character or line) count for file(s)
whereis [options] commandreport the binary, source, and man page locations for the command named
which commandreports the path to the command or the shell alias in use
who or wreport who is logged in and what processes are running
zcat file.Zconcatenate (list) uncompressed file to screen, leaving file compressed on disk

Rechte für Unix User
Pos. ...gibt Antwort auf die Frage: Bsp.
Benutzer-/Gruppe:

    u    für den Eigentümer
      g    für die Gruppe, der die Datei angehört
        o    für alle anderen Benutzer
          a    für alle Benutzer des Systems

Aktion:
    +    für "Rechte hinzufügen"
      -    für "Rechte entziehen"
        =    für alle Rechte setzen

Rechte:
    r    für readable, lesbar
      w    für writeable, beschreibbar
        x    für executeable, ausführbar
1 Für directory (d) und für File (-) eingeben! d, - Directory: drwxr-xr-x
File: -rw-rwxr--

chmod: change modus


go: group and others


Für das Ändern der Zugriffsrechte gibt es Möglichkeiten:

chmod go-x Privat/, chmod go+rx Privat/, chmod 700 Privat/
2 Hat der Besitzer das Leserecht?r chmod -r--------
3Hat der Besitzer das Schreibrecht? w chmod -rw-------
4 Hat der Besitzer die Ausführererlaubnis? x chmod -rwx------
5 Haben Leute der gleichen Benutzergruppe das Leserecht?r chmod -rwxr-----
6Haben Leute der gleichen Benutzergruppe das Schreibrecht? w chmod -rwxrw----
7 Haben Leute der gleichen Benutzergruppe die Ausführerlaubnis? x chmod -rwxrwx---
8 Haben andere aussenstehende Personen das Leserecht?r chmod -rwxrwxr--
9Haben andere aussenstehende Personen das Schreibrecht? w chmod -rwxrwxrw-
10Haben andere aussenstehende Personen die Ausführerlaubnis? x chmod -rwxrwxrwx
Remote Connection Commands
Command/Syntax What it will do
finger[opions]user[@hostname report information about users on local and remote machines
ftp[options]host transfer file(s) using file transfer protocol
rcp[options]hostname remotely copy files from this machine to another machine
rsh[options]hostname remote shell to run on another machine
rlogin[options]hostnamelogin remotely to another machine
telnet[host[port]] communicate with another host using telnet protocol
Internet Protocoll Numbers
< < < < <

Protokoll Nr.

Kürzel

Protokoll Name

1

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol

2

IGMP

Internet Group Management Protocol

3

GGP

Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol

4

IP

IP in IP (encapsulation)

5

ST

Stream

6

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

7

UCL

UCL

8

EGP

Exterior Gateway Protocol

9

IGP

any private interior gateway p.

10

BBN-RCC-MON

BBN RCC Monitoring

11

NVP-II

Network Voice Protocol

12

PUP

PUP

13

ARGUS

ARGUS

14

EMCON

EMCON

15

XNET

Cross Net Debugger

16

CHAOS

Chaos

17

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

18

MUX

Multiplexing

19

DCN-MEAS

DCN Measurement Subsystems

20

HMP

Host Monitoring Protocol

21

PRM

Packet Radio Measurement

22

XNS-IDP

XEROX NS IDP

23

TRUNK-1

Trunk-1

24

TRUNK-2

Trunk-2

25

LEAF-1

Leaf-1

26

LEAF-2

Leaf-2

27

RDP

Reliable Data Protocol

28

IRTP

Internet Reliable Transaction P.

29

ISO-TP4

ISO Transport Protocol Class 4

30

NETBLT

Bulk Data Transfer Protocol

31

MFE-NSP

MFE Network Services Protocol

32

MERIT-INP

MERIT Internodal Protocol

33

SEP

Sequential Exchange Protocol

34

3PC

Third Party Connect Protocol

35

IDPR

Inter-Domain Policy Routing Protocol

36

XTP

XTP

37

DDP

Datagram Delivery Protocol

38

IDPR-CMTP

IDPR Control Message Transport Protocol

39

TP++

TP++ Transport

40

IL

IL Transport Protocol

41

SIP

Simple Internet Protocol

42

SDRP

Source Demand Routing Protocol

43

SIP-SR

SIP Source Route

44

SIP-FRAG

SIP Fragment

45

IDRP

Inter-Domain Routing Protocol

46

RSVP

Reservation Protocol

47

GRE

General Routing Encapsulation

48

MHRP

Mobile Host Routing Protocol

49

BNA

BNA

50

SIPP-ESP

SIPP Encap Security Payload

51

SIPP-AH

SIPP Authentication Header

52

I-NLSP

Integrated Net Layer Security Protocol

53

SWIPE

IP with Encryption

54

NHRP

NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol

55-60

 

Unassigned

61

 

any host internal protocol

62

CFTP

CFTP

63

 

any local network

64

SAT-EXPAK

SATNET and Backroom EXPAK

65

KRYPTOLAN

Kryptolan

66

RVD

MIT Remote Virtual Disk Protocol

67

IPPC

Internet Pluribus Packet Core

68

 

any distributed file system

69

SAT-MON

SATNET Monitoring

70

VISA

VISA Protocol

71

IPCV

Internet Packet Core Utility

72

CPNX

Computer Protocol Network Executive

73

CPHB

Computer Protocol Heart Beat

74

WSN

Wang Span Network

75

PVP

Packet Video Protocol

76

BR-SAT-MON

Backroom SATNET Monitoring

77

SUN-ND

SUN ND PROTOCOL-Temporary

78

WB-MON

WIDEBAND Monitoring

79

WB-EXPAK

WIDEBAND EXPAK

80

ISO-IP

ISO Internet Protocol

81

VMTP

VMTP

82

SECURE-VMTP

SECURE-VMTP

83

VINES

VINES

84

TTP

TTP

85

NSFNET-IGP

NSFNET-IGP

86

DGP

Dissimilar Gateway Protocol

87

TCF

TCF

88

IGRP

IGRP

89

OSPFIGP

OSPFIGP

90

Sprite-RPC

Sprite RPC Protocol

91

LARP

Locus Address Resolution Protocol

92

MTP

Multicast Transport Protocol

93

AX.25

AX.25 Frames

94

IPIP

IP-within-IP Encapsulation Protocol

95

MICP

Mobile Internetworking Control Protocol

96

SCC-SP

Semaphore Communications Sec. Protocol

97

ETHERIP

Ethernet-within-IP Encapsulation

98

ENCAP

Encapsulation Header

99

 

any private encryption scheme

100

GMTP

GMTP

101-254

 

Unassigned

255

 

Reserved

 

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